is a transport system project for launching cargoes into the low Earth orbit, proposed and developed by the engineer Anatoli Unitsky. It is a gigantic construction of an astroengineering scale.

The GPV, along with the space lift, is one of the alternatives to the rocket launchers as a means of cargo placement into the Earth orbit. It is based on the only possible ecologically clean geocosmic transport technology, which can ensure any cargo and passenger flows into orbit and back, and only it is able to save the Earth civilization from extinction and death.

GPV history

Anatoli Unitsky got the idea of the General Planetary Vehicle (GPV) in the form of a self-expanding ring city of Gomel, in 1976.
The information about the General Planetary Vehicle was published in the press for the first time in 1982 on the pages of the scientific-popular magazines "Inventor and Innovator" and "Technоlogy for Youth".
And later, with the purpose of further popularization, the information about the GPV was published in the central press of the USSR. 3, 4, 5, 6 After that, in 1982, the Belorussian cosmonaut Pyotr Klimuk said the following about the project:

is a Soviet cosmonaut, Twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1973, 1975), Colonel-General of Aviation of the Russian Federation (1998)
"I think that if the majority of people have been to space, there would be no more wars and military conflicts on the planet Earth. In the future, when there appear huge orbital stations (the exploration of outer space can be carried out by all countries), we, there in space, will not differentiate whether the person is from the Soviet Union, a citizen of Poland or the United States, — this person will simply be an Earthling. Every person, no matter what nation and state he/she belongs to, will work for humanity. And I think it is the outer space that will give each of the people equal rights to defend their land."
Then, in a television broadcast "Contemporary", dated 17 August, 1985, dedicated to the GPV, a sociologist I. Bestuzhev-Lada, spoke about the need for such a vehicle for all mankind:

a Soviet and Russian scientist, a sociologist, an expert in the field of social forecasting and globalism
"The UN demographers predict that in the XXI century the growth of the Earth’s population will be gradually decreasing, and by 2150, the population will have stabilized at the level of 13.5 billion people. That’s a lot. We should try to move towards the so-called "Low Energy Society" for our life to be better than it is now, for the quality of life itself to be high, and for us to spend much less energy. And in this connection, the project of Anatoli Unitsky, his idea seems to me the most interesting one. To tell the truth, it is unusual. In fact, it is the new type of the transport mean."
At the same TV programme, Ascold Alexandrovich Silin (Head of the Department of the Institute of Optical-Physical Measurements, Ph.D., Professor), noted:

Ascold Alexandrovich Silin is a Head of Chair of
All-Russian Research Institute of Optical-Physical Measurements, Professor
"This is a global project that requires consideration not only from the technical and economic point of view, but also from the standpoint of all humanity, as it requires the joining efforts of all people. What can be said about its implementation? From the standpoint of physics, this project is correct and does not cause any doubts. So, you can argue about some purely technical problems. For example, about such a gigantic problem as the problem of management of this huge construction encircling the Earth. It seems to us that with the help of powerful computers such a problem is quite solvable for the technology of the beginning of the third millennium, just as the problem, connected with the use of the superconductivity in such huge scale".
In 1986, the author and inventor of GPV Anatoli Unitsky Began the conceptual development, engeneering design and layout of the General Planetary Vehicle (GPV) lightweight version, on the basis of which, there was written a letter to the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. In the same year, Unitsky was admitted to membership of the USSR Cosmonautics Federation, having developed at the engineering level the design of the non-rocket vehicle, based on the string technologies. Тhe essence of the design was accessing the near space from the Earth due to the internal forces of the system. As members of the sector "Non-Rocket Space Systems" of the USSR Space Federation, Anatoli Unitsky and A.O. Miboroda wrote a letter to the Secretary-General of the CPSU Central Committee M.S.Gorbachyov in early 1986, in which they proposed to implement the program "Alternative":
"The program is based on the international non-rocket space transport system… The system can be implemented in our time both from the technical and economic points of view. The program is implemented by placing the Earth industry and power engineering into the near space."
The answer to this letter, which came in 1986 from the Ministry of General Engineering of the USSR, from the Head of the 8th Department of V.F. Gribanov was as follows:
"According to the conclusion of the Institute, the proposed version of the transport system is technically impossible to implement in the atmosphere of the Earth… The main factors hindering the realization of the idea are aerodynamic braking and heating of the rotor."
In response to this letter and in response to the Declaration and Appeal of the international organization ECOFORUM for Peace (Varna, 1986) to peoples and governments for the sake of saving humanity and life on the Planet, there was developed the programme ECOMIR [ECOWORLD] as a basis for a programme of fundamentally new solution in the field of non-rocket means of cargo delivery to the near space.

The inventor of the GPV would not stop putting efforts to the project recognition in the scientific community as well, for which he sought feedback and reviews from the specialized institutions and recognized scientists. Here is the review on the GPV project from the Institute of Mechanics of Metal-Polymer Systems of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR, 1987:

"The GPV project is a comprehensive program for the creation of a prospective non-rocket space transport, reducing the cost of launching the payload into orbit by hundreds of times compared to the rocket systems… Difficulties that will arise, whether technical, scientific, economic or socio-political, are fundamentally solvable at the modern level of science and technology of our country and the world community…"
The review of the staff member of the Institute of Mechanics of Metal-Polymer Systems of the BSSR, Candidate of Technical Sciences V.V. Meshkov, dated 1987, had several technical comments, but the project was considered relevant:
"The greatest fears in the GPV’s functioning are caused by the initial period of acceleration of the rotor when undesirable dynamic effects are possible… In general, the project is relevant and is of interest to specialists."
In April 1987, in Moscow, there was delivered a report by the author of the GPV project at the non-governmental meeting of American and Soviet public, organized by the Soviet Peace Committee. As a result of the meeting, there was issued the Bulletin "XXth Century and Mir" ["XXth Century and the World"], where the essence of the project of the General Planetary Vehicle (GPV) was presented in five languages.
Centre for Scientific and Technical Creativity "Zvyozdnyi Mir" ("Star World")

After the first Congress of the USSR Space Federation in 1987, the first Deputy Chairman of the Federation I. Borisenko sent an appeal to the Gomel Regional Party Committee and to the Regional Council of Scientific and Technical Societies:
"We request to consider the organization of an initiative group or a public bureau on problems of non-rocket space technology at the Regional Council of the Scientific and Technical Society. The decision of organizational issues is entrusted to a member of the USSR Space Federation Anatoli Unitsky, who has been working on this technology for a long time and is the author of the proposed non-rocket system…"
This appeal was the basis for the opening the second largest in Belarus Centre of Scientific and Technical Creativity of Youth "Star World" in Gomel in June 1988, the main objectives of which were the development of the concept of a clean planet (the program "Ecomir") and non-rocket industrialization of near space (the program "Technomir" ["Technoworld"]), on the basis of the GPV project.
In addition, the centre conducted lectures, thematic evenings on astronomy, astronautics, medicine, ecology (Department "Kosmonarij"); there functioned the laboratory "Atmosphere". The Department "Device" concluded contracts with enterprises and institutions for carrying out research and development works (on 01.07.1990, there were concluded about 400 contracts for the amount of 9 million roubles).

Due to the profit from the centre’s economic contracts, there were carried out the full-scale research of two new transport technologies: above-ground transport network (its current name is SkyWay) and space non-rocket transport network (its current name is SpaceWay).

"The program "Ecomir" was implemented at the expense of the funds (a grant for 150 thousand roubles), allocated by the Soviet Peace Fund for the joint program "Star World" (Resolution of the Board of the Soviet Peace Fund, dated 25 May, 1988. No. 34 − 88/B) under the direction of Anatoli Unitsky, Director of the Centre "Zvyozdnyi Mir" ["Star World"] and its Scientific Director.

The main tasks of this work were the following ones: carrying out researches, project works, their financing, acquaintance with the program of head bodies of international public organizations and governments of the world countries and preparation of the International Conference on the Program "Ecomir". The main role at the preparatory stage was assigned to the USSR Cosmonautics Federation, the Soviet Peace Fund, "Star World" Fund. The Centre "Zvyozdnyi Mir" ["Star World"] became the coordinating and working body for the development of programme documents.

And in the next 1989 year, there was produced the documentary film "Earth's Gravity of Stars" at the studio "Belarusfilm". The film was dedicated to the Centre of Scientific and Technical Creativity of Youth "Star World" and its director Anatoli Unitsky, and in the film, there was mentioned the information about preparation for the Scientific and Technical Conference "Ecomir-90". The supporter of the centre was I.V. Volk, a pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR, Hero of the Soviet Union.

Звёзд земное притяжение
Scientific and technical conferences and seminars

On 26−28 April, 1988, in the Belarusian city of Gomel, together with the All-Union Society "Knowledge" and the Federation of Cosmonautics of the USSR, Anatoli Unitsky organized and conducted the first scientific and practical conference in the Soviet Union, which gathered about 500 participants (including four pilots-astronauts) to discuss the problems of non-rocket space exploration. 30 reports and about 100 speeches of specialists from different fields of science and technology, experts on international relations, economists, philosophers, sociologists, the staff members of higher School, were devoted to the concept of non-rocket industrialization of space. The special attention was paid to the existing non-traditional technical ideas and solutions aimed at the creation of space transport, the discussion of the General Planetary Vehicle (GPV) project: the report "The Principles of Creating Optimal Transport System for the Industrial Development of Near Earth Space". The resolutions of this Conference of "Non-Rocket Industrialization of Space: Problems, Ideas, Projects" related to the project of the GPV:
"To apply to the legislative bodies of the countries, as well as to the USSR and BSSR Academies of Sciences for including works on non-rocket industrialization of space in the plan of the Academy of Sciences with giving them the status of an important state task; to acknowledge the great work, carried out by the Gomel Committee on Problems of Non-Rocket Transport Space Systems under the USSR Federation of Cosmonautics (USSR FC) and Gomel Council of Scientific and Technical Organization on Education and Science (NTO), led by Anatoli Unitsky, and in order to expedite the work on the project implementation, to create on the basis of the Committee a self-supporting scientific organization with the right of a legal entity with the necessary staff, acting on the principles of self-sustainability and self-financing, and the "Star World" Fund, which could finance the implementation of Research and Technological Development on GPV; to hold the next All-Union conference on the problems of non-rocket space exploration in Gomel in 1990; to apply to the State Committee on Inventions to take measures to ensure the scientific priority of the USSR in the field of the projects "GPV", "Micrograviton"".
In 1989, following the results of the conference, the Director of "Belarusfilm" Yuriy Khashchevatskiy with the support and financing of the USSR State Cinema, shot the film "To Sky by Wheel" in two languages: Russian and English ones, devoted to the author of the GPV. The film was screened in the USSR and abroad.
В небо на колесе
In the city of Gomel, from 9 to 10 December 1988, there was held all-union scientific and technical seminar "Star World", organized by the Centre for Scientific and Technical Creativity of the Youth (CSTCY) "Star World", the Regional Board of the Union of Scientific and Engineering Societies of the USSR and the Gomel House of Technology. At the seminar, there were demonstrated scientific and technical films and delivered the following reports:

  1. "On Creation of the All-Union Fund "Star World", the speaker: I.P. Volk, Head of the training complex;
  2. "The Star World Program is One of the Scenarios for the Development of Civilization," the speaker: Anatoli Unitsky;
  3. "Organizational Aspects of the Personnel Support of the Programme "Star World", the speaker: A.S. Shaginyan, Rector of Gomel Polytechnic Institute;
  4. "Evolution of Biosphere into Noosphere and Current Global Concerns", speaker: N.P. Budko, Researcher of the USSR Commission on Development of Scientific heritage of Academician V.I.Vernadskiy;
  5. "Some Aspects of the "Star World" Programme Promotion in the Participating Countries", the speaker: T.V. Vasilyeva, Executive Secretary of the UNESCO programme "Man and the Biosphere".

According to the results of the seminar, it was decided to re-register the CSTCY Centre "Star World" under the aegis of the Soviet Peace Fund and the USSR Space Federation, as its activities went beyond the youth organizations and the Central Committee of the Belorussian All-Union Komsomol. The works in the Centre were conducted in all directions: from agriculture, to the study of high-temperature superconductors and space exploration. But due to the collapse of the USSR, the plans of the Centre "Star World" were not implemented.
Scientific works on the GPV programme

In the whole program "Ecomir", developed in 1988 by the resolution of the first All-Union conference on problems of non-rocket industrialization of space, there were the following scientific works:

  1. "General Principles of Functioning and "Ekomir" Fund Organizational Structure": in the work, there is the organization structure of the fund and the description of the general principles of its functioning; there are also revealed the informative and methodological aspects of formation of the organizational structure of the Fund. The Head: I.P. Volk;
  2. "Historical Prerequisites for the Implementation of the Programme "Star World" as a Possible Way of Civilization Development". The Head: G.G. Lazko;
  3. Report on the Research Teme" Scientific Bases of Non-Rocket Industrialization of Space". The Head: G.S.Hozin;
  4. "Report on Scientific Research Work "Preliminary System Analysis of the Main Aspects of the Idea "General Planetary Vehicle". The Head: G.A. Poltavets;
  5. Development of the Concept of "Homomir" and Organization of its Realization in the Conditions of the Fund "Ecomir" Activity". The Head: I.P. Volk;
  6. "Report on Scientific Research Work "Creation of Mathematical Models of Rotor Movement at the Stages of Acceleration and Entry into the Atmosphere". The Head: M.L. Shishakov;
  7. "Report on Research Work "Analysis of the Dynamics of the GPV's Entry in the Outer Space in the Equatorial Plane of the Earth". The Head: A.M. Kazban;
  8. "Report on the Research Work "Analysis of the Dynamics of the GPV's Entry into Space in the Conditions of Planets with Equatorial Rings. The Task of Rotor's Maneuvering". The Head: A.M. Kazban;
  9. "Analysis of Interaction with Electromagnetic Phenomena in the Atmosphere". The headL R.V. Radshun;
  10. "Analysis of the Technical Means Providing Acceleration of the Object of Unlimited Length in a Vacuum Channel up to Speed of 10 km/s". The Head: L.I. Polyashov;
  11. "The Report on Survey-Design Work" Analysis of Variants of GPV's Flyover Design and Its Optimization". THe head: O.P. Krivko
  12. "Report on Research Work "Aanalysis of the Possibility of Using Superconductivity to Create Traction and Electrodynamic Suspension of the General Planetary Vehicle's Rotor". The Head: O.V. Omelyanenko;
  13. "Report on Research Work "Carrying out of Researches and Development of Requirements on Reliability, Vitality and Safety of GPV and its Models". The Head: V.K. Krishnev;
  14. Report on the Development of the Scientific Project "Principles and Mechanism of International Cooperation in the Implementation of the GPV Project". The Head: A.P. Ognev.
  15. "Analysis of the Main Aspects of the Monetary and Financial System of the United World within the Framework of the" Ecomir" Programme,. The Head: V.M. Yurovitskiy;
  16. "Development of Organizational Aspects of the Personnel Support of the "Ecomir" Programme as a Possible Scenario for the Development of Civilization". The Head: A.S. Shagiyan;
  17. Report on Research Work "Study of the Problem of Youth Preparation for Implementation of the Concept of Non-Rocket Industrialization of Space": Recommendations for Practical Implementation", Head: T.B. Vasilyeva;
  18. "Recommendations for Practical Implementation of the Proposals on the NIR Report "Study of the Problem of Youth Preparing for Implementation of the Concept of Non-Rocket Industrialization of Space": Recommendations for Practical Implementation". The Head: B.N. Kantemirov.
  19. "Report on Research Work "Study of the Problem of Youth Preparation for Implementation of the Concept of Non-Rocket Industrialization of Space": Recommendations for Practical Implementation". Head: B.N. Kantemirov.

In order to popularize the idea of the GPV, the author of the idea together with Anatoliy Borovskiy published two books.
Description of the GPV Project

GPV's General Characteristics (Generation No1)
The description of this GPV’s generation was first published in the journal "Technology for Youth" in 1982: The GPV is a closed wheel with a 10-metre transverse diametre, which rests on a special flyover, installed along the equator. The height of the flyover varies from a few dozens to several hundred metres depending on a relief. On the ocean expanse, and they make up 76% of the length of the equatorial line, the flyover is placed on the floating supports, anchored at the ocean floor.

The process of GPV’s start looks as follows. It is known that a running magnetic field appears on the winding of the linear motor after the electric power has been submitted. In the hermetic channel, located on the axis of the GPV’s body, there is an infinite belt, which has a magnetic suspension and is a peculiar rotor of the engine. It is driven by current that will interact with the magnetic field that has spawned it, and the belt that does not experience any resistance (it is placed in a vacuum), comes into motion: more precisely, into rotation around the Earth. When the first cosmic velocity is reached, the belt will become weightless. At the further acceleration, its centrifugal force through a magnetic suspension will render on GPV’s body the increasing vertical lifting force, until it will balance each linear metre (for the GPV to become a sort of weightless).

Into the GPV, held on the flyover with a top belt, having a mass of 9 tons per metre and preliminary spun to a speed of 16 km/s, and, which is exactly the same, but lying still bottom belt, there are placed the cargo and the passengers. This is done mainly inside, and partially outside of the GPV’s body for the load to be evenly distributed along GPV’s length. After being released from the grips holding the GPV on the flyover, its diameter will slowly grow due to the lifting force, and each of its running metre will rise above the Earth. Since the shape of the circle corresponds to minimum of energy, the vehicle that previously copied the flyover profile, will take the shape of an ideal ring after lifting.

Although, after lifting above the flyover, the GPV will be given to the will of the air currents, they will not have any impact on its work. Calculations show that the unsupported vehicle has unique flexural rigidity and stability, thanks to the movement of an endless belt, which static structures will never have. The analysis shows that the ascended vehicle will be in equilibrium only if its total kinetic energy equals the energy of a body of the same mass moving with the first cosmic velocity.

If the total energy is more, the diameter of the ring will begin to increase; if the total energy is less, the diameter will decrease. Then, in order to lift the GPV, the initial kinetic energy (the belt is accelerated on the Earth to a higher speed) should be either in excess, or in the process of lifting, the vehicle’s mass should be reduced by dropping ballast, but preferably, there should be combination of both. Environmentally friendly substances, such as water or pre-liquefied air, should be used as ballast; the total ballast outgo, when going up to the 300-km height, is about 10−100 kilograms per running metre of the ring. The GPV’s body stretching as its diameter increases, will be relatively small: the ring length will increase by 1.57% for every 100 kilometres of elevation above the Earth’s surface. The extension of the body is compensated by moving its blocks, the ends of which telescopically fit into each other and are interconnected, for example, by hydraulic cylinders. Infinite belts of linear electric motors will be extended due to their elastic stretching.

The speed of GPV’s lifting at any of the sections of the path can be set within wide limits: from pedestrian speed up to airplane speed, but the GPV is recommended to pass the atmospheric section at minimum speeds. After exiting the dense layers of the atmosphere, a reversible drive of the upper endless belt is switched on to the generator mode, and the belt will begin to brake, and the engine will generate electric current. This energy is switched to the engine of the second belt, which is turned on for direct mode. The bottom belt (having the same mass as the upper one), previously fixed relative to the body, begins to rotate in the opposite direction. Thus, the immutability of the kinetic energy of the GPV’s elements, rotating around the planet, is ensured in the process of launching, otherwise the ring may land back to the Earth.

The body of the GPV and everything that is attached to it, i. e the load, linear electric motors and the like, obeying the law of conservation of the angular momentum of the system, will come into rotation. It will begin spinning in the same direction as the upper endless belt, until it reaches a peripheral speed, equal to the first cosmic velocity, while its radial velocity drops to zero. After that, at an altitude of 400−600 kilometers, cargo and passengers are unloaded at the destination — the space necklace of the Earth, located at the same height.

GPV’s landing on the Earth, is carried out in the reverse order. In this way, the GPV will be launched into near space in one or two hours if overloads in it are taken at the level of modern airbuses at the moment of their take-off (acceleration of up to 2 m/s2).

During the transport cycle, no external power supply is required — the GPV will have enough initial kinetic energy, which will be redistributed from the upper endless belt to the body, and during landing, will again be given to the belt. The energy of the space cargo, delivered to the Earth, will also join it. On the way to space and back, or in the intervals between the flights, the GPV will receive such amount of energy, which with a large reserve will provide its own needs for it. In addition to the described source of energy: the energy of the space load, there are three more sources: solar energy received through solar panels, currents of the ionosphere and the energy of the Earth’s rotation around its axis. The GPV will accumulate the received energy either in its endless belts, or pass it on to the Earth. By Anatoli Unitsky’s estimation, the total weight of the GPV will be 1.6 million tons (40 tons per running metre), its carrying capacity — 200 million tons (5 tons per metre), passenger capacity — 200 million people. The estimated number of the GPV’s entering space for a fifty-year service life is 10 thousand flights.
GPV's General Characteristics (Generation No2)

  • the General Planetary Vehicle, including the principle of action, based on the implementation of the basic conservation laws (energy, momentum, angular momentum, etc.), layout structure and the connection between units and components;

  • the dynamics of GPV’s launching into outer space in the equatorial plane of the Earth and the possibility of its maneuvering relative to the equatorial plane;

  • design and operation principle of the accelerator for acceleration of the GPV’s rotor in the vacuum channel;

  • linear electric motor for accelerating the rotor to cosmic speeds;

  • the launching platform around the planet for going by land and by sea, combined with high-speed ground transport, including the one in a specially made fore-vacuum tube;

  • social, economic, financial, resource, geopolitical and philosophical aspects to substantiate the inevitability of placing the environmentally dangerous component of the Earth industry to the near-Earth orbit and the transition of the Earth’s technocratic civilization to a new stage of post-industrial development — to the space stage — with large-scale use of space technological capabilities (zero gravity, deep vacuum, others), as well as spatial, energy, raw materials and other resources;

  • the scientific substantiation that the earthly technocratic civilization already today has all the necessary resources for the realization of this most ambitious project in the entire history of mankind (namely, finances, technologies, materials, structures, components and equipment, power capacities, etc.), — but there is no will and no understanding of the necessity and inevitability of this step to save civilization from the technosphere, which occupies the same niche as the biosphere, and therefore, its further degradation up to complete destruction, including its human (biological) component, is inevitable;

  • justification of the fact that there are only 2−3 generations left before the point of no return for the Earthly technocratic civilization, after which its degradation and extinction cannot be stopped.

A single self-supporting aircraft, made in the form of a torus with a cross-section of several meters, covering the planet in a plane parallel to the equator, will be able to bring about ten million tons of cargo and ten million passengers into the orbit.
The General Planetary Vehicle is the only technical solution, using which the transport system is capable of launching cargos to various circular equatorial orbits without using jet engines. And it is the only solution where the most environmentally friendly principle can be used for going into space: in the process of GPV’s functioning, its mass centre does not change in space, and therefore, there are no energy, mechanical, chemical and other types of interaction with the environment. In fact, the GPV is a stable self-supporting structure, a stretched thread, with infinitely small transverse dimensions in respect to the length (ratio 1: 10 000 000). According to this principle, the GPV is a kind of the string transport technology, otherwise, this structure with a diameter of more than 12 thousand kilometers and having a size of only a few meters across, would lose stability in the orbit.

Construction of the GPV

The General Planetary Vehicle creation includes three main work directions, performed in parallel:

1. Research and Development works on:

— the launching equatorial flyover, combined with the SkyWay transport system;

— infrastructure: transport, logistics, industrial, residential, energy and information ones;

— works on the General Panetary Vehicle itself;

— transport infrastructure and industrial complex in the orbit, including new space industries: industrial, residential, energy and information ones.

2. Preparation and construction of the equatorial launching flyover, combined with the SkyWay transport system, as well as buildings, structures, infrastructure (industrial and residential complexes, power plants, electric power transmission lines, control and communication systems).

3. Production and installation of the General Planetary Vehicle (it's length is 40 076 km, its total weight without payload is 30 million tonnes), commissioning works.
The General Planetary Vehicle,
combined with the SkyWay transport system (version)

The cost of the GPV’s creation and related works up to 2037 year inclusive are presented in the table below. It should be noted that the maximum of the future annual costs, equal to 260 billion USD, attributable to the period of 2032−2037 years, as an example, are about twice as less as the current annual U.S. military budget.
The Cost of GPV's Creating and Related Work
Conditions for the GPV's launch into the Earth orbit

The GPV, like any artificial satellite of the Earth, orbiting at a certain height h0, has the first cosmic velocity for the given height, and all its elements are in a state of zero gravity. The GPV, which has entered the orbit at the height of h0, is in a state of equilibrium (neither rise nor goes down), therefore, as a whole, it is also in a state of zero gravity.

The optimal way of GPV’s functioning will be the one in which all its linear elements (covering the planet) will be in a state of zero gravity. There is an option when the GPV’s elements have the oppositely directed weight, for example: one flywheel moves with a higher speed than the first space velocity, and the second one — with a smaller one, and they, vertically, balance each other. Thus, each element of the GPV must have in orbit the first cosmic velocity V1. The GPV’s Design: belt flywheels, a body with drive systems inside of it, external compartments (capsules) — passenger and cargo ones.
The GPV’s design (version)
Belt flywheels 1.1 and 1.2, a body 3, with 2.1 and 2.2 drive systems inside of it, and external compartments (capsules) 4: passenger 4.1 and cargo 4.2 ones.

Since, when the GPV is lifting into space, it should not only be lifted to a height of h0, but also it’s body should be accelerated around the planet up to the first cosmic velocity (at the launch, the GPV, lying on the flyover, was stationary relative to the Earth’s surface — the vehicle’s body had a speed of 465.1 m/s, which is the movement/rotation of equatorial points of the planet), then, obtaining the mentioned speed, will only be possible when pushing off from the flywheels' belts, according to the law of conservation of angular momentum of a closed system.
GPV's Pre-Launch Preparation

Before starting the GPV, the linear flywheels should have an adequate supply of kinetic energy in order to lift the entire system of tens of millions of tons to a given orbit, taking into account all subsequent energy losses:

  • aerodynamic resistance in the atmospheric section;
  • losses in magnetic cushion and linear electric motors;
  • expenditure of energy for stretching / increasing the length of the GPV’s ring while it is lifting and increasings its diameter;
  • energy consumption for lifting the GPV’s system to a height of h0;
  • energy losses during the return to the planet (if there is no refueling with energy in the orbit and during the descent stage).

Therefore, the first step is to turn on the magnetic suspension system of the flywheels and connect the GPV’s linear electric motors (drives) to external sources of electrical energy. After that, the flywheel belts that do not experience any resistance (they are in a vacuum) start moving along the vacuum channel and, respectively, along the GPV’s body, as well as start rotating around the planet with the axis of rotation passing through the center of the Earth’s mass. As the speed increases, the flywheels accumulate the necessary amount of kinetic energy and amount of motion (momentum angular), which are necessary for the GPV’s entering a specified orbit with a given orbital speed (for example, at an altitude of 300 km in the equatorial plane, the first space velocity is 7728 m/s, at an altitude of 500 km — 7615 m/s).

The GPV, made in the form of a ring encircling the planet, gives an endless path to accelerate flywheels and much longer time of charging the GPV with necessary energy, which compares favorably with the launch vehicle which has the final acceleration path (several hundred kilometers) in a finite time (several minutes).

The GPV weight-lifts not tons, but millions of tons of cargo in space for one flight. In one calendar year, the GPV is capable to make at least 10 flights into the orbit and back.
The General Planetary Vehicle
during landing on the flyover (version)

There are various design and operational characteristics of the GPV with flywheels of different masses (with equal masses, or one flywheel is heavier and the other one is lighter), with different starting modes of flywheels' belts acceleration (both flywheels are accelerated on the planet either in one direction or in different directions).

When the flywheel belt encircling the planet, reaches the first cosmic velocity in the vacuum channel (at zero height in the equatorial plane it equals 7908 m/s, at the height of 400 km — 7671 m/s), it will become weightless. If the belt speed increases, the centrifugal force acting vertically (that is, from the center of the Earth along its radius) will exceed its weight, that is, will try to get it off from the planet. When the centrifugal forces from the flywheels exceed the weight of the GPV (for example, equal to 1000 kgf/m), the whole system will become conditionally weightless (if both flywheels with a linear mass of 250 kg/m each are accelerated to a speed of 11,184 m/s, then GPV, weighing 1000 kg/m, will become weightless), the weight of the GPV will be zero, that is, it will not put pressure on the flyover. If the flywheels are accelerated to an even greater speed, then there will be excess lifting force sufficient to lift the entire GPV complex to a given orbit along with the payload.

To perform all transport work on entering the given orbit, for example, at an altitude of 500 km, two GPV’s flywheels, with a total curb weight of 20 million tons (500 kg/m), in total must accumulate kinetic energy of 1.25×1018 J (approximately 3.5×1011 kWh). Taking into account the losses and energy consumption when entering the orbit (in particular, due to the efficiency coefficient of linear electric motors of about 95%), the initial energy reserves must be 15−20% more, that is, they will be equal to about 1.5×1018 J (4,2×1011 kWh). Then, with the power of GPV’s connecting to the external power system (the planet’s power system), equal to 100 million kW (today it is less than 2% of the net power of the world’s power plants; whereas, the GPV can get powered mostly at night when the cost of electricity is significantly reduced) or about 2.5 kW per metre of the system length, the time of initial charging of the geospace transport system — acceleration of the flywheel belts to the estimated speed — will be 420 hours (17.5 days).

After flywheels' building up estimated speed, the 40-million ton GPV, of which 20 million tons fall on flywheels, is ready to take off. At that time, it is being kept from lifting along its entire length with the help of special locking devices installed on the flyover supports. After loading cargo and placing passengers in suspended gondolas, the locking devices release the body along its entire length, and the GPV is ready for take off from the planet.

Since the flywheels are accelerated to speeds that ensure centrifugal forces exceed the weight of each running metre of the GPV, each running metre of the self-supporting vehicle encircling the planet, begins moving from the centre of flywheels' rotation, that is, rising vertically upwards in the plane of the equator, passing through the centre of the Earth’s mass. At the same time, the GPV’s ring will be increasing in diameter, symmetrically in all directions relative to the centre, and its body will be lengthening and stretching. The giant ring’s centre of mass, according to the law of conservation, will always coincide with the centre of mass of the planet.
The acceleration of the vertical lifting into space depends on the excess of centrifugal forces. For example, if the lifting force acting on each running meter exceeds the weight of each GPV’s running metre by 5%, then its body will begin to lift upwards with a comfortable for the passengers acceleration of 0.5 m/s2, or 5% of the free-fall acceleration. When moving with such acceleration, the GPV will rise (expand in the equatorial plane) to an altitude of 100 km in 5 minutes 16 seconds and will have a vertical lifting speed of 570 km/h at this height.

When lifting every 100 km above the ground, the body of the GPV should be lengthened by 1.57% (as well as the diametre), which is easily achieved by design and technological solutions, for example, by telescopic connections along the length between short sections of the GPV’s body or other known and approved techniques.

After leaving the dense atmosphere layers (at altitudes of more than 10 km), the linear electric drive of the flywheel belt, accelerated on the ground to the space velocity in the direction of rotation of the planet, is switched for the braking (generator) mode. The electrical energy generated by this is directed to accelerating the second belt flywheel in the opposite direction. As a result, the GPV’s body receives a double impulse and begins rotating in the direction of the Planet’s rotation. If the rotational acceleration is the same comfortable 0.5 m/s2, then the GPV’s body and the entire load attached to it (including passengers in gondolas) will gain the estimated orbital, that is, circular speed, for example, equal to 7671 m/s (for an altitude of 400 km) in exactly 4 hours.

The climb and orbital speed modes are selected so that at a given height, for example, equal to 400 km, the GPV has the orbital speed (that is, 7671 m/s) and is in equilibrium: its vertical speed would be zero. For this, а special ballast system will be used in the process of going into space if necessary. Еnvironmentally friendly substances, for example, water and oxygen (compressed or liquefied) are used as a ballast. If such a ballast is sprayed in a predetermined amount in the ozone layer of the planet and above (altitudes from 10 to 60 km), then it will be possible to regulate the oxygen and ozone content in the upper layers of the atmosphere, as well as manage the weather and climate on the planet in an environmentally friendly way (the ozone layer traps up to 4% of solar radiation, including harmful UV rays, and up to 20% of the return radiation of the Earth, warming the atmosphere and being a kind of blanket — a thermal reservoir of thermal energy in the atmosphere.

After the GPV’s reaching a given orbit and stabilizing over its entire length (no local oscillations relative to the ideal orbit), the cargo and passengers are unloaded into the orbital ring (encircling the planet) complex. The GPV’s load capacity is 250 kg/m or 10 million tons. It is enough for the start of creating a Cosmic Industrial Necklace "Orbit" (CIN "Orbit") around the planet Earth already at the first launch of the GPV.
Conditions, required for the creation of the CIN "Orbit"

The Cosmic Industrial Necklace "Orbit" is an orbital transport and infrastructure and industrial-residential complex, encircling the planet in the equatorial plane at a given height (for example, at an altitude of 400 km) and having a corresponding length of 42,567 km (for an altitude of 400 km).
The fragment design of the Cosmic Industrial Necklace "Orbit" (variant), to which the GPV is approaching while expanding.
The first GPV’s launch into space will allow to create the basic transport infrastructure and energy information complex SpaceTransNet (STN), as a foundation for creating the Cosmic Industrial Necklace (CIN) "Orbit" at a given height. Externally, the "Orbit" will look like a necklace encircling the planet in the equatorial plane, in which the "beads" are paired cargo and passenger gondolas brought into orbit at 500-metre span from each other (in a total amount of about 160 thousand items, with cargo and passengers, weighing 10 million tons), connected to each other with a "thread" — string orbital roads and other communications: energy and informational ones. Since there is no weight in the orbit, the string roads become pre-stressed strings, made, for example, from reinforced aluminum (to transfer electrical energy in them along the orbit between factories and workshops). Around the gondolas, as around a catalyst, there are created "crystals" over time, i.e. plants, factories, workshops, power plants and other industrial facilities, as well as residential space settlements — EcoCosmoDom, in which the CIN "Orbit" personnel will live and work. The transverse size of these structures is up to 500 m in order not to excessively increase their windage, which will slow down the entire industrial complex due to the presence of the deluted gaseous medium at this height (at the 400-km height, you can talk about relative atmosphere, as its density is very low): 3×10-12 kg / m3).
The CIN "Orbit" includes the following main components:
Compared with the Earth’s industry located on the surface of the planet, space and near-Earth space have a number of advantages. The presence of the zero gravity in the orbit allows to produce unique materials, mechanisms, equipment: to melt foam steel, which will be stronger than ordinary steel, but will not sink in water and will not corrode. In addition, in the orbit, there is deep vacuum, which is harder to get on Earth than extracting oil: a cubic metre of deep vacuum costs more than a ton of oil. Vacuum, combined with zero gravity, will allow, for example, to master the production of unique ultra-pure and heavy-duty substances and materials, including nanomaterials and biological products. It is also easy to arrange robust energy industry in the orbit, primarily necessary for industrial orbital needs: from one square metre of the lit surface, it is possible to get about 1 kW of power, taken from a natural fusion reactor, the Sun.

With a sufficient level of technological development that will ensure the commissioning of the GPV and CIN "Orbit", the extraction of elements such as platinum, cobalt and other rare minerals on asteroids, with these materials' subsequent delivery to the Earth orbit, can bring very large profits. At the 1997 prices, a relatively small metal asteroid with a diametre of 1.5 km contained various metals, including precious metals, in the amount of $ 20 trillion.

In accordance with the program of GPV’s functioning, the Earth orbit will gradually accommodate moved from the Earth, or rather, they will be recreated, industrial productions, scientific laboratories, plants, factories, workshops, primarily in the power engineering, mechanical engineering, metallurgy and chemistry.

Residential sector
Multi-functional clusters "EcoCosmoDom" in which up to 10,000 people can work and live in each, will consist the basis of the residential "Orbit" sector. For comfortable living in space, people need conditions that are equivalent and even superior to those on the Earth. Such conditions are as follows:
Comfortable gravity
In the orbit, gravity can be modeled by centrifugal forces. It is possible that the reduced gravity will be the most comfortable, for example, like the one on the Moon or Mars: with a free fall acceleration of 2 m/s2, that is, 5 times lower than on the Earth. Then, an adult would weigh about 15 kg and could easily jump onto the roof of the house and fly like a bird, if provided with wings.
Comfortable atmosphere
The pressure in the atmosphere of the space house.
It is possible that pressure, like in the mountain on the Earth, will be comfortable in the orbit: for example, twice as low as atmospheric pressure, that is, 0.5 kgf / cm2, or five tons per square meter. Lowering the pressure by half, will reduce the load on the outward case of the space house due to the pressure of the atmosphere inside it.

Atmosphere composition
To avoid oxygen starvation, the oxygen content can be doubled, for example, up to 40% if the atmosphere pressure is twice as low in comparison with the Earthly one. (The oxygen content though should be limited to a certain limit, at which spontaneous combustion of various combustible substances, take wood as an example, can occur). The content of other gases (nitrogen, argon, neon, carbon dioxide, etc.) can also be optimized.

Air humidity
Since our body, like animals and plants, receives moisture not only from food but also from air, the humidity of the atmosphere in a space house can be set constant in time and be equal to 55%.

Air temperature
The air in the space house can have a temperature of +21 °С all year round. .
Comfortable living environment for a person
In the space house the biosphere of the planet will be fully modeled: there will be represented flora and fauna, including microflora and microfauna — soil biogeocenosis with thousands of species of microorganisms. Without a healthy (alive) fertile soil, it will be impossible to create comfortable conditions for human habitation in a EcoCosmoDom. [Ecological Space House — translator’s note.] The biosphere of the space house must constantly produce the oxygen, necessary for breathing of people and animals who live there, produce healthy food and dispose of all the waste products of living organisms, including man, into humus.
Protection from meteorites and radiation
Both in space, and in the Earth orbit, there is a meteoritic and radiation hazard, against which the existing orbital stations do not fully protect. The most effective protection from both of these dangers are not heavy-duty thin-walled screens, but thick multi-layered barriers, such as foamed materials, multi-metre soil layer inside the space eco-house, as well as water and air.
EcoCosmoDom's components
The constructive part of a cosmic residential cluster is, as the most optimal variant, a hollow sphere (or cylinder, or torus) with a diameter of 200−500 meters, spun around its axis. The bearing shell of the sphere is made of high strength materials and is the most non-material part of such a house. For example, if it is made from composite materials produced by industry already today, the thickness of the supporting wall of such a huge structure will be equal to only three millimeters. The most material-intensive part of a spherical house will be anti-meteoritic and anti-radiation protection, as well as a layer of soil: their total thickness will reach several metres.

On the inner surface of the sphere, there is poured a layer of living fertile soil, and are planted forests, gardens, meadows with their biogeocenoses. There are reservoirs with fresh and sea water with their ecosystems. Part of the sphere, approaching the axis of rotation of the sphere, is made with mountain landscapes, with streams, waterfalls and their piedmont ecosystems. The air in the cosmic house is filled with smells of flowers and useful phytoncides, whose favorable effect on the human body does not compare with any medications. There is no noise, except for the singing of birds and the rustle of tree foliage.

The design of the Cosmic Industrial Necklace "Orbit"
The design of the space industrial necklace "Orbit" with toroidal "EcoCosmoDoms" on it.

The approximate amount of materials required for the construction of an orbital space house for 5 thousand people will be 400 thousand tons, including

  • a bearing shell — 1000 tons;
  • anti-radiation and anti-meteoritic protection — 90,000 tons;
  • fertile living soil (eco chernozyom — eco black soil) — 160,000 tons;
  • water (fresh and sea) — 70,000 tons;
  • air — 5000 tons;;
  • construction materials and structures, including for dwellings inside the space house — 15,000 tons;
  • all the rest—59,000 tons
Delivery of all materials into the orbit for one EcoCosmoDom using the GPV will cost about $ 500 million, the cost of materials and substances for it will cost about the same amount — $ 500 million, installation work in orbit will cost about $ 1 billion. Thus, a space settlement in the orbit, in which up to 5 thousand people can live and work, will cost about $ 2 billion, which will be almost two orders of magnitude cheaper than the International Space Station (the cost of building and maintaining the station in working condition, according to approximate experts' estimates is already approaching or even exceeded $ 150 billion). That is, with the money that mankind has spent today on up to a dozen astronauts' staying in the orbit, it would be possible, using GPV, to build 75 space settlements for 375 thousand inhabitants who will live and work in much more comfortable conditions than on the Earth.
Cost of the GPV's geospatial transportation

The cost of geocosmic transportation by the General Planetary Vehicle along the Earth-Orbit and the Orbit-Earth routes consists of three main components:
  • the cost of electrical energy for the operation of all the GPV’s onboard systems, in the first place — the linear electric motors and systems of magnetic suspension of linear flywheels (rotors), which takes more than 95% of energy;
  • salary of staff with taxes and deductions;
  • depreciation deductions not only on GPV, but also on the SkyWay ground transport and infrastructure complex, which services the GPV.
Power consumption
The initial storage of energy, required for lifting the GPV with a total mass of 40 million tons into space and returning it back to the Earth already without a payload, with a total mass of 10 million tons left in orbit, is 4.2×1011 kWh. For powering the GPV, it is more expedient to have own power plants with a total capacity of about 100 million kilowatts: then, electrical energy can be spread within the system at a cost of about 5 US cents per kW. Besides, additional energy can be taken from the network of countries through which the GPV flyover runs and only at night, since nightly rates are 2−2.5 times lower than daytime tariffs, with the fact that the average cost of electricity sales in the world today is 8, 2 cents / kWh.

The power cost E0 for the first launch of the GPV (it will require initial spinning of the flywheels to cosmic velocities in their vacuum channels, i.e., an initial "filling" with kinetic energy will be necessary, which, in the future, should never decrease, but only be topped up) will be 420,000,000,000 kWh x 0.05 USD/kWh = 21,000,000,000 USD (with a total payload mass of 10 million tons), or E2 = 2,100 USD/ton

On subsequent launches, when the one-sided "Earth-Cosmos" cargo traffic prevails, the space industry will only be still created, and the finished products that will need to be delivered back to the Earth will be practically absent, so energy costs will be necessary only for the difference in cargo traffic to the orbit and back to the Earth. Therefore, during the first year of the GPV’s operation, it will be necessary to compensate for each flight only energy costs for cargo, delivered to space, the mass of which is 25% of the gross mass of the GPV — krp = 10,000,000 t / 40,000,000 t = 0.25. Thus, during this period of GPV’s operation, the delivery of one ton of cargo into orbit will require energy consumption, which costs

Е1 = 2 100 USD/t x 0,25 = 525 USD/t. In this case, once accelerated flywheels can rotate inside vacuum channels for years, since a magnetic cushion with permanent magnets, like vacuum, will not create resistance as they move at cosmic speeds.

With equal traffic flows "Earth — Orbit" and "Orbit — Earth", which will be established around the eighth year of the GPV’s operation, additional energy will be needed only to compensate for losses in linear flywheel electric motors. And if the cargo traffic from space exceeds the cargo traffic from the Earth, the GPV will be able to work as a giant power station. With a total loss of energy within the GPV’s system at the level of 10%, the cost of energy for delivering a ton of cargo to the orbit (and launching a ton of cargo onto the planet’s surface) will be Е2 =2100USD/tx0,1=210USD/t.

After the space industry starts operating at full capacity and the development of asteroids and the Moon as sources of raw materials begins, the demand for the delivery of raw materials from the Earth will decrease significantly. At the same time, the reverse cargo traffic from the orbit to the planet will significantly exceed the direct one, since the major portion of industrial products for earthlings will be delivered from space. If the space industrial products of higher quality than the current one, will be produced in the future per capita even an order of magnitude less than today on the planet, then the annual volume of traffic along the "Orbit-Earth" route will reach 500 million ton in 10 years of the GPV’s operation, which would require 50 launchings into the orbit (about once a week). At the same time, the GPV will reduce launching the payload to the orbit (it will make a flight loaded only by about 20%): basically it will go up into space for the products produced there, to deliver them to the planet to consumers — by that time, there will be about 10 billion earthlings. At this and subsequent stages, the energy costs will have a negative value, and the GPV will operate in the mode of a power plant that yields a profit of 500,000,000 tons/year x 8,000 kWh/tons x 0.05 USD/kWh = 200,000,000,000 USD/year, or 400 USD for each excess ton of cargo delivered from the orbit to the Earth.

At the same time, part of the energy will be spent on the GPV’s own needs (about 50%), therefore, every ton of excess cargo delivered to the planet from space will give a net energy profit of Е3 = 200 USD/t.

Staff salary
Although the GPV and the equatorial launching flyover with the SkyWay system will operate in automatic mode, they will require maintenance personnel in an amount of about 200 thousand people (5 people per 1 km of length). With an average salary of one employee, together with taxes equal to 50,000 USD/year, the annual salary costs will be 10,000,000,000 USD.
Depreciation deductions
The depreciation deductions in the project consist of the cost of GPV’s restoring and restoring the equatorial GPV’s launching flyover, combined with the SkyWay tracks: Сdepreciation = СGPV + Сsw = 7,5 USD/t + 13,2 USD/t = 20,7 USD/t
GPV's depreciation deductions
Capital expenditures for the GPV’s design and construction can be estimated by analogy with modern and prospective electric vehicles, in which the bulk of the cost falls on electrical equipment. The complexity of the equipment and the composition of the GPV’s components is approximately equivalent to an electric vehicle and will cost about the same, in terms of the cost of one ton of construction, — no more than 25,000 USD/ton. Since the curb weight of the GPV (without payload) is 30 million tons, its cost will be equal to 30 000 000 t x 25 000 USD/t = 750 000 000 000 USD.

The GPV is designed for approximately 10,000 launches (the same number of take-offs and landings, performed by a modern airliner during its service life) into space and back landings. During this time, it will transport 100 billion tons of cargo. Then the depreciation deductions for 1 ton of cargo from capital investments in GPV will be:

Сdepreciation =75 000 000 0000USD/100 000 000 000т=7,5USD/

Depreciation deductions on the GPV's equatorial launching platform combined with the SkyWay routes
The length of the equatorial GPV’s flyover complex will be 40,076 km, of which approximately 20% will fall on land sections and 80% on sea sections. Since GPV is designed for launching a payload into the orbit (passengers and various cargoes), transport infrastructure complexes with their high-speed transport logistics, as well as industrial, energy, information and residential infrastructure complexes must be constructed along it on the planet and in space. Infrastructure complexes on the planet provide the movement of passengers and cargo along the GPV, including offshore sections, which occupy about 80% of the flyover length. As a result, the GPV’s launching platform, located at the equator, will be SkyWay "five in one" transport and infrastructure communicator, including

1) high-speed track (at the third level, the speed of vehicles is up to 600 km/h);

2) the urban track (at the second level, the speed of vehicles is up to 200 km/h);

3) a hyper-speed track in the forevacuum channel (under water or underground, with speeds of up to 1250 km/h);

4) power lines integrated into the SkyWay flyover;

5) communication lines.

In addition to the built own power plants, industrial and residential complexes will be constructed along these launching flyovers. Moreover, a linear pedestrian cluster-type city will be built along the flyover, in which millions of people will live and work in GPV’s structures. The cost of such a transport and communication part of the equatorial SkyWay, built on the "five-in-one" principle, is estimated at $ 1320 billion USD, based on the price of 25 million USD / km on land and 35 million USD / km on sea sections.

As noted earlier, the GPV is designed for approximately 10,000 space launches and landings. During this time, it will transport 100 billion tons of cargo. Then the depreciation deductions for 1 ton of cargo from capital investments in the transport and communication part of the equatorial SkyWay will be

Сsw = 1 320 000 000 000 USD/ 100 000 000 000 t = 13,2 USD/t.

Cost of geocosmic transportation by years of the GPV's operation

Year since the beginning of GPV operation The annual volume of transport, (million tons) Components of the cost of geospace transportation, USD/ton The cost of transportation, USD/ton, (-) — profit
- Into orbit Back on Earth Energy Wages Depreciation Etc
1 100 10 525 90,9 20,7 63,4 700
2 200 50 450 40,0 20,7 39,3 550
3 300 100 300 25,0 20,7 24,3 370
4 400 150 200 18,2 20,7 21,1 260
5 500 200 150 14,3 20,7 15,0 200
6 500 250 100 13,3 20,7 11,0 145
7 400 300 50 14,3 20,7 10,0 95
8 300 350 0 15,4 20,7 8,9 45
9 200 400 -100 16,7 20,7 7,6 -55
10 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
11 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
12 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
13 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
14 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
15 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
16 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
17 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
18 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
19 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
20 100 500 -200 16,7 20,7 7,6 -155
Total 4000 7310
Analysis of the data given in the table above allows the following conclusions to be drawn:

1) the cost of geocosmic transportation using the GPV in the amount of 700 USD/t in the first year of operation, is attributable to the significant energy costs for the initial spin-up of the flywheels, as well as the relatively low annual traffic volume;

2) from the second to the eighth years (inclusive), as the volume of transportation is growing (both from the Earth and to the Earth), its cost is significantly being reduced — by more than 15 times;

3) in the ninth and subsequent years of operation, when the return cargo traffic (from the orbit to the planet) significantly exceeds the direct cargo traffic (from the planet to the orbit), the transportation cost will take negative values. This means that the GPV’s geocosmic complex will bring profit not as transport, but as a giant linear kinetic power station with a length of more than 40,000 km, with a working body (two belt flywheels with a total mass of 20 million tons) capable of recovering the potential and kinetic energy of the space cargo into electrical energy.

The economic effect
of GPV's use

The economic effect from the use of the GPV for geospace transportation on the route "Earth's surface — Near-Earth Orbit — Earth’s surface" is defined as the difference between the transportation costs of existing launch vehicles and the GPV. This difference, according to the author, is about 10 million USD/t, as noted above, at the lowest weighted average prices of cargo delivery to the orbit by rockets. With the volume of transportation of about 100 million tons of cargo with the help of the GPV, already in the first year of operation, the economic effect will be 1000 trillion USD, multiplying increasingly every year. These calculations take into account only the material component of the production and delivery of products.

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Film "To the Sky By Wheel" by Film Studio "Belarusfilm", released on the screens of cinemas in the USSR in 1989

The film "Earth's Gravity of Stars"